Inspect Pipeline Runs

How to inspect a finished pipeline run

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Inspecting Pipeline Runs

Once a pipeline run has completed, we can access it using the ZenML Repository, about which you will find more details in a later section.

Each pipeline can have multiple runs associated with it, and for each run there might be several outputs for each step. Thus, to inspect a specific output, we first need to access the respective pipeline, then fetch the respective run, and then choose the step output of that specific run.

The overall hierarchy looks like this:

repository -> pipelines -> runs -> steps -> outputs

# where -> implies a 1-many relationship.

Let us investigate how to traverse this hierarchy level by level:


The highest level Repository object is where to start from.

from zenml.repository import Repository

repo = Repository()


The repository contains a collection of all created pipelines with at least one run sorted by the time of their first run from oldest to newest.

You can either access this collection via the get_pipelines() method or query a specific pipeline by name using get_pipeline(pipeline_name=...):

# get all pipelines from all stacks
pipelines = repo.get_pipelines()  

# now you can get pipelines by index
pipeline_with_latest_initial_run_time = pipelines[-1]

# or get one pipeline by name
pipeline_x = repo.get_pipeline(pipeline="example_pipeline")

# or even use the pipeline class
pipeline_x = repo.get_pipeline(pipeline=example_pipeline)

Be careful when accessing pipelines by index. Even if you just ran a pipeline it might not be at index -1, due to the fact that the pipelines are sorted by time of first run. Instead, it is recommended to access the pipeline using the pipeline class, an instance of the class or even the name of the pipeline as a string: get_pipeline(pipeline=...).


Each pipeline can be executed many times. You can get a list of all runs using the runs attribute of a pipeline. Or, you can query a specific run by run name using the get_run(run_name=...) method:

# get all runs of a pipeline chronologically ordered
runs = pipeline_x.runs 

# get the last run by index, runs are ordered by execution time in ascending order
last_run = runs[-1]

# or get a specific run by name
run = pipeline_x.get_run(run_name=...)

Calling pipeline.runs can currently be very slow when using remote metadata stores as all run data need to be transferred from the cloud to the local machine.

Alternatively, you can also access the runs from the pipeline class/instance itself.

from zenml.pipelines import pipeline

def example_pipeline(...):

# get all runs of a pipeline chronologically ordered
runs = example_pipeline.get_runs()

# get the last run by index, runs are ordered by execution time in ascending order
last_run = runs[-1]

# or get a specific run by name
run = example_pipeline.get_run(run_name=...)


Within a given pipeline run you can now further zoom in on individual steps using the steps attribute or by querying a specific step using the get_step(name=...) method.

# get all steps of a pipeline for a given run
steps = run.steps

# get the step that was executed first
first_step = steps[0]

# or get a specific step by name
step = run.get_step(step="first_step")

# or even use the step class
step = run.get_step(step=first_step)

The steps are ordered by time of execution. Depending on the orchestrator, steps can be run in parallel. Thus, accessing steps by index can be unreliable across different runs, and it is recommended to access steps by the step class, an instance of the class or even the name of the step as a string: get_step(step=...) instead.


Finally, this is how you can inspect the output of a step:

  • If there only is a single output, use the output attribute

  • If there are multiple outputs, use the outputs attribute, which is a dictionary that can be indexed using the name of an output:

# The outputs of a step
# if there are multiple outputs they are accessible by name
output = step.outputs["output_name"]

# if there is only one output, use the `.output` property instead 
output = step.output 

# read the value into memory  

The names of the outputs can be found in the Output typing of your steps:

from zenml.steps import step, Output

def some_step() -> Output(output_name=int):

Code Example

Putting it all together, this is how we can access the output of the last step of our example pipeline from the previous sections:

from zenml.repository import Repository

repo = Repository()
pipeline = repo.get_pipeline(pipeline_name="first_pipeline")
last_run = pipeline.runs[-1]
last_step = last_run.steps[-1]
model =

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