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GCP Service Connector

Configuring GCP Service Connectors to connect ZenML to GCP resources such as GCS buckets, GKE Kubernetes clusters, and GCR container registries.
The ZenML GCP Service Connector facilitates the authentication and access to managed GCP services and resources. These encompass a range of resources, including GCS buckets, GCR container repositories, and GKE clusters. The connector provides support for various authentication methods, including GCP user accounts, service accounts, short-lived OAuth 2.0 tokens, and implicit authentication.
To ensure heightened security measures, this connector always issues short-lived OAuth 2.0 tokens to clients instead of long-lived credentials unless explicitly configured to do otherwise. Furthermore, it includes automatic configuration and detection of credentials locally configured through the GCP CLI.
This connector serves as a general means of accessing any GCP service by issuing OAuth 2.0 credential objects to clients. Additionally, the connector can handle specialized authentication for GCS, Docker, and Kubernetes Python clients. It also allows for the configuration of local Docker and Kubernetes CLIs.
$ zenml service-connector list-types --type gcp
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┓
┃ NAME β”‚ TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE TYPES β”‚ AUTH METHODS β”‚ LOCAL β”‚ REMOTE ┃
┠───────────────────────┼────────┼───────────────────────┼──────────────────┼───────┼────────┨
┃ GCP Service Connector β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic β”‚ implicit β”‚ βœ… β”‚ βœ… ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ user-account β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ service-account β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ external-account β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ oauth2-token β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ impersonation β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━┛

Prerequisites

The GCP Service Connector is part of the GCP ZenML integration. You can either install the entire integration or use a PyPI extra to install it independently of the integration:
  • pip install "zenml[connectors-gcp]" installs only prerequisites for the GCP Service Connector Type
  • zenml integration install gcp installs the entire GCP ZenML integration
It is not required to install and set up the GCP CLI on your local machine to use the GCP Service Connector to link Stack Components to GCP resources and services. However, it is recommended to do so if you are looking for a quick setup that includes using the auto-configuration Service Connector features.
The auto-configuration examples in this page rely on the GCP CLI being installed and already configured with valid credentials of one type or another. If you want to avoid installing the GCP CLI, we recommend using the interactive mode of the ZenML CLI to register Service Connectors:
zenml service-connector register -i --type gcp

Resource Types

Generic GCP resource

This resource type allows Stack Components to use the GCP Service Connector to connect to any GCP service or resource. When used by Stack Components, they are provided a Python google-auth credentials object populated with a GCP OAuth 2.0 token. This credentials object can then be used to create GCP Python clients for any particular GCP service.
This generic GCP resource type is meant to be used with Stack Components that are not represented by one of the other, more specific resource types like GCS buckets, Kubernetes clusters, or Docker registries. For example, it can be used with the Google Cloud Image Builder stack component, or the Vertex AI Orchestrator and Step Operator. It should be accompanied by a matching set of GCP permissions that allow access to the set of remote resources required by the client and Stack Component (see the documentation of each Stack Component for more details).
The resource name represents the GCP project that the connector is authorized to access.

GCS bucket

Allows Stack Components to connect to GCS buckets. When used by Stack Components, they are provided a pre-configured GCS Python client instance.
The configured credentials must have at least the following GCP permissions associated with the GCS buckets that it can access:
  • storage.buckets.list
  • storage.buckets.get
  • storage.objects.create
  • storage.objects.delete
  • storage.objects.get
  • storage.objects.list
  • storage.objects.update
For example, the GCP Storage Admin role includes all of the required permissions, but it also includes additional permissions that are not required by the connector.
If set, the resource name must identify a GCS bucket using one of the following formats:
  • GCS bucket URI (canonical resource name): gs://{bucket-name}
  • GCS bucket name: {bucket-name}

GKE Kubernetes cluster

Allows Stack Components to access a GKE cluster as a standard Kubernetes cluster resource. When used by Stack Components, they are provided a pre-authenticated Python Kubernetes client instance.
The configured credentials must have at least the following GCP permissions associated with the GKE clusters that it can access:
  • container.clusters.list
  • container.clusters.get
In addition to the above permissions, the credentials should include permissions to connect to and use the GKE cluster (i.e. some or all permissions in the Kubernetes Engine Developer role).
If set, the resource name must identify a GKE cluster using one of the following formats:
  • GKE cluster name: {cluster-name}
GKE cluster names are project scoped. The connector can only be used to access GKE clusters in the GCP project that it is configured to use.

GCR container registry

Allows Stack Components to access a GCR registry as a standard Docker registry resource. When used by Stack Components, they are provided a pre-authenticated Python Docker client instance.
The configured credentials must have at least the following GCP permissions:
  • storage.buckets.get
  • storage.multipartUploads.abort
  • storage.multipartUploads.create
  • storage.multipartUploads.list
  • storage.multipartUploads.listParts
  • storage.objects.create
  • storage.objects.delete
  • storage.objects.list
The Storage Legacy Bucket Writer role includes all of the above permissions while at the same time restricting access to only the GCR buckets.
The resource name associated with this resource type identifies the GCR container registry associated with the GCP-configured project (the repository name is optional):
  • GCR repository URI: [https://]gcr.io/{project-id}[/{repository-name}]

Authentication Methods

Implicit authentication

This method may constitute a security risk, because it can give users access to the same cloud resources and services that the ZenML Server itself is configured to access. For this reason, all implicit authentication methods are disabled by default and need to be explicitly enabled by setting the ZENML_ENABLE_IMPLICIT_AUTH_METHODS environment variable or the helm chart enableImplicitAuthMethods configuration option to true in the ZenML deployment.
This authentication method doesn't require any credentials to be explicitly configured. It automatically discovers and uses credentials from one of the following sources:
  • environment variables (GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS)
  • local ADC credential files set up by running gcloud auth application-default login (e.g. ~/.config/gcloud/application_default_credentials.json).
  • a GCP service account attached to the resource where the ZenML server is running. Only works when running the ZenML server on a GCP resource with a service account attached to it or when using Workload Identity (e.g. GKE cluster).
This is the quickest and easiest way to authenticate to GCP services. However, the results depend on how ZenML is deployed and the environment where it is used and is thus not fully reproducible:
  • when used with the default local ZenML deployment or a local ZenML server, the credentials are those set up on your machine (i.e. by running gcloud auth application-default login or setting the GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable to point to a service account key JSON file).
  • when connected to a ZenML server, this method only works if the ZenML server is deployed in GCP and will use the service account attached to the GCP resource where the ZenML server is running (e.g. a GKE cluster). The service account permissions may need to be adjusted to allow listing and accessing/describing the GCP resources that the connector is configured to access.
Note that the discovered credentials inherit the full set of permissions of the local GCP CLI credentials or service account attached to the ZenML server GCP workload. Depending on the extent of those permissions, this authentication method might not be suitable for production use, as it can lead to accidental privilege escalation. Instead, it is recommended to use the Service Account Key or Service Account Impersonation authentication methods to restrict the permissions that are granted to the connector clients.
To find out more about Application Default Credentials, see the GCP ADC documentation.
A GCP project is required and the connector may only be used to access GCP resources in the specified project. When used remotely in a GCP workload, the configured project has to be the same as the project of the attached service account.
Example configuration
The following assumes the local GCP CLI has already been configured with user account credentials by running the gcloud auth application-default login command:
zenml service-connector register gcp-implicit --type gcp --auth-method implicit --auto-configure
Example Command Output
Successfully registered service connector `gcp-implicit` with access to the following resources:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ gs://zenml-bucket-sl ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core.appspot.com ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core_cloudbuild ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-datasets ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-internal-artifact-store ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-kubeflow-artifact-store ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-project-time-series-bucket ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ zenml-test-cluster ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ gcr.io/zenml-core ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
No credentials are stored with the Service Connector:
zenml service-connector describe gcp-implicit
Example Command Output
Service connector 'gcp-implicit' of type 'gcp' with id '0c49a7fe-5e87-41b9-adbe-3da0a0452e44' is owned by user 'default' and is 'private'.
'gcp-implicit' gcp Service Connector Details
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ PROPERTY β”‚ VALUE ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ ID β”‚ 0c49a7fe-5e87-41b9-adbe-3da0a0452e44 ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ NAME β”‚ gcp-implicit ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ TYPE β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ AUTH METHOD β”‚ implicit ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ RESOURCE TYPES β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic, πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket, πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster, 🐳 docker-registry ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ RESOURCE NAME β”‚ <multiple> ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SECRET ID β”‚ ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SESSION DURATION β”‚ N/A ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ EXPIRES IN β”‚ N/A ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ OWNER β”‚ default ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ WORKSPACE β”‚ default ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SHARED β”‚ βž– ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ CREATED_AT β”‚ 2023-05-19 08:04:51.037955 ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ UPDATED_AT β”‚ 2023-05-19 08:04:51.037958 ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
Configuration
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ PROPERTY β”‚ VALUE ┃
┠────────────┼────────────┨
┃ project_id β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

GCP User Account

​Long-lived GCP credentials consist of a GCP user account and its credentials.
This method requires GCP user account credentials like those generated by the gcloud auth application-default login command.
By default, the GCP connector generates temporary OAuth 2.0 tokens from the user account credentials and distributes them to clients. The tokens have a limited lifetime of 1 hour. This behavior can be disabled by setting the generate_temporary_tokens configuration option to False, in which case, the connector will distribute the user account credentials JSON to clients instead (not recommended).
This method is preferred during development and testing due to its simplicity and ease of use. It is not recommended as a direct authentication method for production use cases because the clients are granted the full set of permissions of the GCP user account. For production, it is recommended to use the GCP Service Account or GCP Service Account Impersonation authentication methods.
A GCP project is required and the connector may only be used to access GCP resources in the specified project.
If you already have the local GCP CLI set up with these credentials, they will be automatically picked up when auto-configuration is used (see the example below).
Example auto-configuration
The following assumes the local GCP CLI has been configured with GCP user account credentials by running the gcloud auth application-default login command:
zenml service-connector register gcp-user-account --type gcp --auth-method user-account --auto-configure
Example Command Output
Successfully registered service connector `gcp-user-account` with access to the following resources:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ gs://zenml-bucket-sl ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core.appspot.com ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core_cloudbuild ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-datasets ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-internal-artifact-store ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-kubeflow-artifact-store ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-project-time-series-bucket ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ zenml-test-cluster ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ gcr.io/zenml-core ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
The GCP user account credentials were lifted up from the local host:
zenml service-connector describe gcp-user-account
Example Command Output
Service connector 'gcp-user-account' of type 'gcp' with id 'ddbce93f-df14-4861-a8a4-99a80972f3bc' is owned by user 'default' and is 'private'.
'gcp-user-account' gcp Service Connector Details
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ PROPERTY β”‚ VALUE ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ ID β”‚ ddbce93f-df14-4861-a8a4-99a80972f3bc ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ NAME β”‚ gcp-user-account ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ TYPE β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ AUTH METHOD β”‚ user-account ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ RESOURCE TYPES β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic, πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket, πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster, 🐳 docker-registry ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ RESOURCE NAME β”‚ <multiple> ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SECRET ID β”‚ 17692951-614f-404f-a13a-4abb25bfa758 ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SESSION DURATION β”‚ N/A ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ EXPIRES IN β”‚ N/A ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ OWNER β”‚ default ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ WORKSPACE β”‚ default ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SHARED β”‚ βž– ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ CREATED_AT β”‚ 2023-05-19 08:09:44.102934 ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ UPDATED_AT β”‚ 2023-05-19 08:09:44.102936 ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
Configuration
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ PROPERTY β”‚ VALUE ┃
┠───────────────────┼────────────┨
┃ project_id β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┠───────────────────┼────────────┨
┃ user_account_json β”‚ [HIDDEN] ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

GCP Service Account

​Long-lived GCP credentials consisting of a GCP service account and its credentials.
This method requires a GCP service account and a service account key JSON created for it.
By default, the GCP connector generates temporary OAuth 2.0 tokens from the service account credentials and distributes them to clients. The tokens have a limited lifetime of 1 hour. This behavior can be disabled by setting the generate_temporary_tokens configuration option to False, in which case, the connector will distribute the service account credentials JSON to clients instead (not recommended).
A GCP project is required and the connector may only be used to access GCP resources in the specified project.
If you already have the GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable configured to point to a service account key JSON file, it will be automatically picked up when auto-configuration is used.
Example configuration
The following assumes a GCP service account was created, granted permissions to access GCS buckets in the target project and a service account key JSON was generated and saved locally in the [email protected] file:
zenml service-connector register gcp-service-account --type gcp --auth-method service-account --resource-type gcs-bucket --project_id=zenml-core --service_account_json=@[email protected]
Example Command Output
Expanding argument value service_account_json to contents of file [email protected].
Successfully registered service connector `gcp-service-account` with access to the following resources:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ gs://zenml-bucket-sl ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core.appspot.com ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core_cloudbuild ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-datasets ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-internal-artifact-store ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-kubeflow-artifact-store ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-project-time-series-bucket ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
The GCP service connector configuration and service account credentials:
zenml service-connector describe gcp-service-account
Example Command Output
Service connector 'gcp-service-account' of type 'gcp' with id '4b3d41c9-6a6f-46da-b7ba-8f374c3f49c5' is owned by user 'default' and is 'private'.
'gcp-service-account' gcp Service Connector Details
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ PROPERTY β”‚ VALUE ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ ID β”‚ 4b3d41c9-6a6f-46da-b7ba-8f374c3f49c5 ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ NAME β”‚ gcp-service-account ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ TYPE β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ AUTH METHOD β”‚ service-account ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ RESOURCE TYPES β”‚ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ RESOURCE NAME β”‚ <multiple> ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SECRET ID β”‚ 0d0a42bb-40a4-4f43-af9e-6342eeca3f28 ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SESSION DURATION β”‚ N/A ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ EXPIRES IN β”‚ N/A ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ OWNER β”‚ default ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ WORKSPACE β”‚ default ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SHARED β”‚ βž– ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ CREATED_AT β”‚ 2023-05-19 08:15:48.056937 ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ UPDATED_AT β”‚ 2023-05-19 08:15:48.056940 ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
Configuration
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ PROPERTY β”‚ VALUE ┃
┠──────────────────────┼────────────┨
┃ project_id β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┠──────────────────────┼────────────┨
┃ service_account_json β”‚ [HIDDEN] ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

GCP Service Account impersonation

The connector needs to be configured with the email address of the target GCP service account to be impersonated, accompanied by a GCP service account key JSON for the primary service account. The primary service account must have permission to generate tokens for the target service account (i.e. the Service Account Token Creator role). The connector will generate temporary OAuth 2.0 tokens upon request by using GCP direct service account impersonation. The tokens have a configurable limited lifetime of up to 1 hour.
​The best practice implemented with this authentication scheme is to keep the set of permissions associated with the primary service account down to the bare minimum and grant permissions to the privilege-bearing service account instead.
A GCP project is required and the connector may only be used to access GCP resources in the specified project.
If you already have the GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable configured to point to the primary service account key JSON file, it will be automatically picked up when auto-configuration is used.
Configuration example
For this example, we have the following set up in GCP:
  • a primary [email protected] GCP service account with no permissions whatsoever aside from the "Service Account Token Creator" role that allows it to impersonate the secondary service account below. We also generate a service account key for this account.
  • a secondary [email protected] GCP service account that only has permission to access the zenml-bucket-sl GCS bucket
First, let's show that the empty-connectors service account has no permission to access any GCS buckets or any other resources for that matter. We'll register a regular GCP Service Connector that uses the service account key (long-lived credentials) directly:
zenml service-connector register gcp-empty-sa --type gcp --auth-method service-account --service_account_json=@[email protected] --project_id=zenml-core
Example Command Output
Expanding argument value service_account_json to contents of file /home/stefan/aspyre/src/zenml/[email protected].
Successfully registered service connector `gcp-empty-sa` with access to the following resources:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠───────────────────────┼───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┠───────────────────────┼───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ πŸ’₯ error: connector authorization failure: failed to list GCS buckets: 403 GET ┃
┃ β”‚ https://storage.googleapis.com/storage/v1/b?project=zenml-core&projection=noAcl&prettyPrint=false: ┃
┃ β”‚ [email protected] does not have storage.buckets.list access to the Google Cloud ┃
┃ β”‚ project. Permission 'storage.buckets.list' denied on resource (or it may not exist). ┃
┠───────────────────────┼───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ πŸ’₯ error: connector authorization failure: Failed to list GKE clusters: 403 Required "container.clusters.list" ┃
┃ β”‚ permission(s) for "projects/20219041791". [request_id: "0x84808facdac08541" ┃
┃ β”‚ ] ┃
┠───────────────────────┼───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ gcr.io/zenml-core ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
Verifying access to individual resource types will fail:
zenml service-connector verify gcp-empty-sa --resource-type kubernetes-cluster
Example Command Output
Error: Service connector 'gcp-empty-sa' verification failed: connector authorization failure: Failed to list GKE clusters:
403 Required "container.clusters.list" permission(s) for "projects/20219041791".
zenml service-connector verify gcp-empty-sa --resource-type gcs-bucket
Example Command Output
Error: Service connector 'gcp-empty-sa' verification failed: connector authorization failure: failed to list GCS buckets:
403 GET https://storage.googleapis.com/storage/v1/b?project=zenml-core&projection=noAcl&prettyPrint=false:
[email protected] does not have storage.buckets.list access to the Google Cloud project.
Permission 'storage.buckets.list' denied on resource (or it may not exist).
zenml service-connector verify gcp-empty-sa --resource-type gcs-bucket --resource-id zenml-bucket-sl
Example Command Output
Error: Service connector 'gcp-empty-sa' verification failed: connector authorization failure: failed to fetch GCS bucket
zenml-bucket-sl: 403 GET https://storage.googleapis.com/storage/v1/b/zenml-bucket-sl?projection=noAcl&prettyPrint=false:
[email protected] does not have storage.buckets.get access to the Google Cloud Storage bucket.
Permission 'storage.buckets.get' denied on resource (or it may not exist).
Next, we'll register a GCP Service Connector that actually uses account impersonation to access the zenml-bucket-sl GCS bucket and verify that it can actually access the bucket:
zenml service-connector register gcp-impersonate-sa --type gcp --auth-method impersonation --service_account_json=@[email protected] --project_id=zenml-core --target_principal=[email protected] --resource-type gcs-bucket --resource-id gs://zenml-bucket-sl
Example Command Output
Expanding argument value service_account_json to contents of file /home/stefan/aspyre/src/zenml/[email protected].
Successfully registered service connector `gcp-impersonate-sa` with access to the following resources:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠───────────────┼──────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ gs://zenml-bucket-sl ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

External Account (GCP Workload Identity)

Use GCP workload identity federation to authenticate to GCP services using AWS IAM credentials, Azure Active Directory credentials or generic OIDC tokens.
This authentication method only requires a GCP workload identity external account JSON file that only contains the configuration for the external account without any sensitive credentials. It allows implementing a two layer authentication scheme that keeps the set of permissions associated with implicit credentials down to the bare minimum and grants permissions to the privilege-bearing GCP service account instead.
This authentication method can be used to authenticate to GCP services using credentials from other cloud providers or identity providers. When used with workloads running on AWS or Azure, it involves automatically picking up credentials from the AWS IAM or Azure AD identity associated with the workload and using them to authenticate to GCP services. This means that the result depends on the environment where the ZenML server is deployed and is thus not fully reproducible.
When used with AWS or Azure implicit in-cloud authentication, this method may constitute a security risk, because it can give users access to the identity (e.g. AWS IAM role or Azure AD principal) implicitly associated with the environment where the ZenML server is running. For this reason, all implicit authentication methods are disabled by default and need to be explicitly enabled by setting the ZENML_ENABLE_IMPLICIT_AUTH_METHODS environment variable or the helm chart enableImplicitAuthMethods configuration option to true in the ZenML deployment.
By default, the GCP connector generates temporary OAuth 2.0 tokens from the external account credentials and distributes them to clients. The tokens have a limited lifetime of 1 hour. This behavior can be disabled by setting the generate_temporary_tokens configuration option to False, in which case, the connector will distribute the external account credentials JSON to clients instead (not recommended).
A GCP project is required and the connector may only be used to access GCP resources in the specified roject. This project must be the same as the one for which the external account was configured.
If you already have the GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable configured to point to an external account key JSON file, it will be automatically picked up when auto-configuration is used.
Example configuration
The following assumes the following prerequisites are met, as covered in the GCP documentation on how to configure workload identity federation with AWS:
  • the ZenML server is deployed in AWS in an EKS cluster (or any other AWS compute environment)
  • the ZenML server EKS pods are associated with an AWS IAM role by means of an IAM OIDC provider, as covered in the AWS documentation on how to associate a IAM role with a service account. Alternatively, the IAM role associated with the EKS/EC2 nodes can be used instead. This AWS IAM role provides the implicit AWS IAM identity and credentials that will be used to authenticate to GCP services.
  • a GCP workload identity pool and AWS provider are configured for the GCP project where the target resources are located, as covered in the GCP documentation on how to configure workload identity federation with AWS.
  • a GCP service account is configured with permissions to access the target resources and granted the roles/iam.workloadIdentityUser role for the workload identity pool and AWS provider
  • a GCP external account JSON file is generated for the GCP service account. This is used to configure the GCP connector.
zenml service-connector register gcp-workload-identity --type gcp \
--auth-method external-account --project_id=zenml-core \
--external_account_json=@clientLibraryConfig-aws-zenml.json
Example Command Output
Successfully registered service connector `gcp-workload-identity` with access to the following resources:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ gs://zenml-bucket-sl ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core.appspot.com ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core_cloudbuild ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-datasets ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-internal-artifact-store ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-kubeflow-artifact-store ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-project-time-series-bucket ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ zenml-test-cluster ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ gcr.io/zenml-core ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
No sensitive credentials are stored with the Service Connector, just meta-information about the external provider and the external account:
zenml service-connector describe gcp-workload-identity -x
Example Command Output
Service connector 'gcp-workload-identity' of type 'gcp' with id '37b6000e-3f7f-483e-b2c5-7a5db44fe66b' is
owned by user 'default'.
'gcp-workload-identity' gcp Service Connector Details
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ PROPERTY β”‚ VALUE ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ ID β”‚ 37b6000e-3f7f-483e-b2c5-7a5db44fe66b ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ NAME β”‚ gcp-workload-identity ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ TYPE β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ AUTH METHOD β”‚ external-account ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ RESOURCE TYPES β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic, πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket, πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster, 🐳 docker-registry ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ RESOURCE NAME β”‚ <multiple> ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SECRET ID β”‚ 1ff6557f-7f60-4e63-b73d-650e64f015b5 ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SESSION DURATION β”‚ N/A ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ EXPIRES IN β”‚ N/A ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ EXPIRES_SKEW_TOLERANCE β”‚ N/A ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ OWNER β”‚ default ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ WORKSPACE β”‚ default ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ CREATED_AT β”‚ 2024-01-30 20:44:14.020514 ┃
┠────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ UPDATED_AT β”‚ 2024-01-30 20:44:14.020516 ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
Configuration
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ PROPERTY β”‚ VALUE ┃
┠───────────────────────┼───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ project_id β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┠───────────────────────┼───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ external_account_json β”‚ { ┃
┃ β”‚ "type": "external_account", ┃
┃ β”‚ "audience": ┃
┃ β”‚ "//iam.googleapis.com/projects/30267569827/locations/global/workloadIdentityP ┃
┃ β”‚ ools/mypool/providers/myprovider", ┃
┃ β”‚ "subject_token_type": "urn:ietf:params:aws:token-type:aws4_request", ┃
┃ β”‚ "service_account_impersonation_url": ┃
┃ β”‚ "https://iamcredentials.googleapis.com/v1/projects/-/serviceAccounts/myrole@ ┃
┃ β”‚ zenml-core.iam.gserviceaccount.com:generateAccessToken", ┃
┃ β”‚ "token_url": "https://sts.googleapis.com/v1/token", ┃
┃ β”‚ "credential_source": { ┃
┃ β”‚ "environment_id": "aws1", ┃
┃ β”‚ "region_url": ┃
┃ β”‚ "http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/placement/availability-zone", ┃
┃ β”‚ "url": ┃
┃ β”‚ "http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/iam/security-credentials", ┃
┃ β”‚ "regional_cred_verification_url": ┃
┃ β”‚ "https://sts.{region}.amazonaws.com?Action=GetCallerIdentity&Version=2011-06- ┃
┃ β”‚ 15" ┃
┃ β”‚ } ┃
┃ β”‚ } ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

GCP OAuth 2.0 token

Uses temporary OAuth 2.0 tokens explicitly configured by the user.
This method has the major limitation that the user must regularly generate new tokens and update the connector configuration as OAuth 2.0 tokens expire. On the other hand, this method is ideal in cases where the connector only needs to be used for a short period of time, such as sharing access temporarily with someone else in your team.
Using any of the other authentication methods will automatically generate and refresh OAuth 2.0 tokens for clients upon request.
A GCP project is required and the connector may only be used to access GCP resources in the specified project.
Example auto-configuration
Fetching OAuth 2.0 tokens from the local GCP CLI is possible if the GCP CLI is already configured with valid credentials (i.e. by running gcloud auth application-default login). We need to force the ZenML CLI to use the OAuth 2.0 token authentication by passing the --auth-method oauth2-token option, otherwise, it would automatically pick up long-term credentials:
zenml service-connector register gcp-oauth2-token --type gcp --auto-configure --auth-method oauth2-token
Example Command Output
Successfully registered service connector `gcp-oauth2-token` with access to the following resources:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ gs://zenml-bucket-sl ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core.appspot.com ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core_cloudbuild ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-datasets ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-internal-artifact-store ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-kubeflow-artifact-store ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-project-time-series-bucket ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ zenml-test-cluster ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ gcr.io/zenml-core ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
zenml service-connector describe gcp-oauth2-token
Example Command Output
Service connector 'gcp-oauth2-token' of type 'gcp' with id 'ec4d7d85-c71c-476b-aa76-95bf772c90da' is owned by user 'default' and is 'private'.
'gcp-oauth2-token' gcp Service Connector Details
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ PROPERTY β”‚ VALUE ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ ID β”‚ ec4d7d85-c71c-476b-aa76-95bf772c90da ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ NAME β”‚ gcp-oauth2-token ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ TYPE β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ AUTH METHOD β”‚ oauth2-token ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ RESOURCE TYPES β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic, πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket, πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster, 🐳 docker-registry ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ RESOURCE NAME β”‚ <multiple> ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SECRET ID β”‚ 4694de65-997b-4929-8831-b49d5e067b97 ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SESSION DURATION β”‚ N/A ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ EXPIRES IN β”‚ 59m46s ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ OWNER β”‚ default ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ WORKSPACE β”‚ default ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SHARED β”‚ βž– ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ CREATED_AT β”‚ 2023-05-19 09:04:33.557126 ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ UPDATED_AT β”‚ 2023-05-19 09:04:33.557127 ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
Configuration
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ PROPERTY β”‚ VALUE ┃
┠────────────┼────────────┨
┃ project_id β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┠────────────┼────────────┨
┃ token β”‚ [HIDDEN] ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
Note the temporary nature of the Service Connector. It will expire and become unusable in 1 hour:
zenml service-connector list --name gcp-oauth2-token
Example Command Output
┏━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┓
┃ ACTIVE β”‚ NAME β”‚ ID β”‚ TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE TYPES β”‚ RESOURCE NAME β”‚ SHARED β”‚ OWNER β”‚ EXPIRES IN β”‚ LABELS ┃
┠────────┼──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┼────────┼───────────────────────┼───────────────┼────────┼─────────┼────────────┼────────┨
┃ β”‚ gcp-oauth2-token β”‚ ec4d7d85-c71c-476b-aa76-95bf772c90da β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic β”‚ <multiple> β”‚ βž– β”‚ default β”‚ 59m35s β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┗━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━┛

Auto-configuration

The GCP Service Connector allows auto-discovering and fetching credentials and configuration set up by the GCP CLI on your local host.
Auto-configuration example
The following is an example of lifting GCP user credentials granting access to the same set of GCP resources and services that the local GCP CLI is allowed to access. The GCP CLI should already be configured with valid credentials (i.e. by running gcloud auth application-default login). In this case, the GCP user account authentication method is automatically detected:
zenml service-connector register gcp-auto --type gcp --auto-configure
Example Command Output
Successfully registered service connector `gcp-auto` with access to the following resources:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ gs://zenml-bucket-sl ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core.appspot.com ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core_cloudbuild ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-datasets ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-internal-artifact-store ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-kubeflow-artifact-store ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-project-time-series-bucket ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ zenml-test-cluster ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ gcr.io/zenml-core ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
zenml service-connector describe gcp-auto
Example Command Output
Service connector 'gcp-auto' of type 'gcp' with id 'fe16f141-7406-437e-a579-acebe618a293' is owned by user 'default' and is 'private'.
'gcp-auto' gcp Service Connector Details
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ PROPERTY β”‚ VALUE ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ ID β”‚ fe16f141-7406-437e-a579-acebe618a293 ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ NAME β”‚ gcp-auto ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ TYPE β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ AUTH METHOD β”‚ user-account ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ RESOURCE TYPES β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic, πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket, πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster, 🐳 docker-registry ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ RESOURCE NAME β”‚ <multiple> ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SECRET ID β”‚ 5eca8f6e-291f-4958-ae2d-a3e847a1ad8a ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SESSION DURATION β”‚ N/A ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ EXPIRES IN β”‚ N/A ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ OWNER β”‚ default ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ WORKSPACE β”‚ default ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ SHARED β”‚ βž– ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ CREATED_AT β”‚ 2023-05-19 09:15:12.882929 ┃
┠──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ UPDATED_AT β”‚ 2023-05-19 09:15:12.882930 ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
Configuration
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ PROPERTY β”‚ VALUE ┃
┠───────────────────┼────────────┨
┃ project_id β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┠───────────────────┼────────────┨
┃ user_account_json β”‚ [HIDDEN] ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

Local client provisioning

The local gcloud CLI, the Kubernetes kubectl CLI and the Docker CLI can be configured with credentials extracted from or generated by a compatible GCP Service Connector. Please note that unlike the configuration made possible through the GCP CLI, the Kubernetes and Docker credentials issued by the GCP Service Connector have a short lifetime and will need to be regularly refreshed. This is a byproduct of implementing a high-security profile.
Note that the gcloud local client can only be configured with credentials issued by the GCP Service Connector if the connector is configured with the GCP user account authentication method or the GCP service account authentication method and if the generate_temporary_tokens option is set to true in the Service Connector configuration.
Only the gcloud local application default credentials configuration will be updated by the GCP Service Connector configuration. This makes it possible to use libraries and SDKs that use the application default credentials to access GCP resources.
Local CLI configuration examples
The following shows an example of configuring the local Kubernetes CLI to access a GKE cluster reachable through a GCP Service Connector:
zenml service-connector list --name gcp-user-account
Example Command Output
┏━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┓
┃ ACTIVE β”‚ NAME β”‚ ID β”‚ TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE TYPES β”‚ RESOURCE NAME β”‚ SHARED β”‚ OWNER β”‚ EXPIRES IN β”‚ LABELS ┃
┠────────┼──────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────┼────────┼───────────────────────┼───────────────┼────────┼─────────┼────────────┼────────┨
┃ β”‚ gcp-user-account β”‚ ddbce93f-df14-4861-a8a4-99a80972f3bc β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic β”‚ <multiple> β”‚ βž– β”‚ default β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┗━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━┛
The following lists all Kubernetes clusters accessible through the GCP Service Connector:
zenml service-connector verify gcp-user-account --resource-type kubernetes-cluster
Example Command Output
Service connector 'gcp-user-account' is correctly configured with valid credentials and has access to the following resources:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠───────────────────────┼────────────────────┨
┃ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ zenml-test-cluster ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
Calling the login CLI command will configure the local Kubernetes kubectl CLI to access the Kubernetes cluster through the GCP Service Connector:
zenml service-connector login gcp-user-account --resource-type kubernetes-cluster --resource-id zenml-test-cluster
Example Command Output
β ΄ Attempting to configure local client using service connector 'gcp-user-account'...
Context "gke_zenml-core_zenml-test-cluster" modified.
Updated local kubeconfig with the cluster details. The current kubectl context was set to 'gke_zenml-core_zenml-test-cluster'.
The 'gcp-user-account' Kubernetes Service Connector connector was used to successfully configure the local Kubernetes cluster client/SDK.
To verify that the local Kubernetes kubectl CLI is correctly configured, the following command can be used:
kubectl cluster-info
Example Command Output
Kubernetes control plane is running at https://35.185.95.223
GLBCDefaultBackend is running at https://35.185.95.223/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/default-http-backend:http/proxy
KubeDNS is running at https://35.185.95.223/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/kube-dns:dns/proxy
Metrics-server is running at https://35.185.95.223/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/https:metrics-server:/proxy
A similar process is possible with GCR container registries:
zenml service-connector verify gcp-user-account --resource-type docker-registry
Example Command Output
Service connector 'gcp-user-account' is correctly configured with valid credentials and has access to the following resources:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠────────────────────┼───────────────────┨
┃ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ gcr.io/zenml-core ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
zenml service-connector login gcp-user-account --resource-type docker-registry
Example Command Output
β ¦ Attempting to configure local client using service connector 'gcp-user-account'...
WARNING! Your password will be stored unencrypted in /home/stefan/.docker/config.json.
Configure a credential helper to remove this warning. See
https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/login/#credentials-store
​
The 'gcp-user-account' Docker Service Connector connector was used to successfully configure the local Docker/OCI container registry client/SDK.
To verify that the local Docker container registry client is correctly configured, the following command can be used:
docker push gcr.io/zenml-core/zenml-server:connectors
Example Command Output
The push refers to repository [gcr.io/zenml-core/zenml-server]
d4aef4f5ed86: Pushed
2d69a4ce1784: Pushed
204066eca765: Pushed
2da74ab7b0c1: Pushed
75c35abda1d1: Layer already exists
415ff8f0f676: Layer already exists
c14cb5b1ec91: Layer already exists
a1d005f5264e: Layer already exists
3a3fd880aca3: Layer already exists
149a9c50e18e: Layer already exists
1f6d3424b922: Layer already exists
8402c959ae6f: Layer already exists
419599cb5288: Layer already exists
8553b91047da: Layer already exists
connectors: digest: sha256:a4cfb18a5cef5b2201759a42dd9fe8eb2f833b788e9d8a6ebde194765b42fe46 size: 3256
It is also possible to update the local gcloud CLI configuration with credentials extracted from the GCP Service Connector:
zenml service-connector login gcp-user-account --resource-type gcp-generic
Example Command Output
Updated the local gcloud default application credentials file at '/home/user/.config/gcloud/application_default_credentials.json'
The 'gcp-user-account' GCP Service Connector connector was used to successfully configure the local Generic GCP resource client/SDK.

Stack Components use

The GCS Artifact Store Stack Component can be connected to a remote GCS bucket through a GCP Service Connector.
The Google Cloud Image Builder Stack Component, VertexAI Orchestrator, and VertexAI Step Operator can be connected and use the resources of a target GCP project through a GCP Service Connector.
The GCP Service Connector can also be used with any Orchestrator or Model Deployer stack component flavor that relies on Kubernetes clusters to manage workloads. This allows GKE Kubernetes container workloads to be managed without the need to configure and maintain explicit GCP or Kubernetes kubectl configuration contexts and credentials in the target environment or in the Stack Component itself.
Similarly, Container Registry Stack Components can be connected to a GCR Container Registry through a GCP Service Connector. This allows container images to be built and published to GCR container registries without the need to configure explicit GCP credentials in the target environment or the Stack Component.

End-to-end examples

GKE Kubernetes Orchestrator, GCS Artifact Store and GCR Container Registry with a multi-type GCP Service Connector
This is an example of an end-to-end workflow involving Service Connectors that use a single multi-type GCP Service Connector to give access to multiple resources for multiple Stack Components. A complete ZenML Stack is registered and composed of the following Stack Components, all connected through the same Service Connector:
As a last step, a simple pipeline is run on the resulting Stack.
  1. 1.
    Configure the local GCP CLI with valid user account credentials with a wide range of permissions (i.e. by running gcloud auth application-default login) and install ZenML integration prerequisites:
    zenml integration install -y gcp
    gcloud auth application-default login
Example Command Output
```text
Credentials saved to file: [/home/stefan/.config/gcloud/application_default_credentials.json]
​
These credentials will be used by any library that requests Application Default Credentials (ADC).
​
Quota project "zenml-core" was added to ADC which can be used by Google client libraries for billing
and quota. Note that some services may still bill the project owning the resource.
```
  1. 2.
    Make sure the GCP Service Connector Type is available
    zenml service-connector list-types --type gcp
Example Command Output
```text
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┓
┃ NAME β”‚ TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE TYPES β”‚ AUTH METHODS β”‚ LOCAL β”‚ REMOTE ┃
┠───────────────────────┼────────┼───────────────────────┼─────────────────┼───────┼────────┨
┃ GCP Service Connector β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic β”‚ implicit β”‚ βœ… β”‚ βœ… ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ user-account β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ service-account β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ oauth2-token β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ impersonation β”‚ β”‚ ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━┛
```
  1. 3.
    Register a multi-type GCP Service Connector using auto-configuration
    zenml service-connector register gcp-demo-multi --type gcp --auto-configure
Example Command Output
```text
Successfully registered service connector `gcp-demo-multi` with access to the following resources:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ”΅ gcp-generic β”‚ zenml-core ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ gs://zenml-bucket-sl ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core.appspot.com ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-core_cloudbuild ┃
┃ β”‚ gs://zenml-datasets ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ zenml-test-cluster ┃
┠───────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ gcr.io/zenml-core ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
```
**NOTE**: from this point forward, we don't need the local GCP CLI credentials or the local GCP CLI at all. The steps that follow can be run on any machine regardless of whether it has been configured and authorized to access the GCP project.
4. find out which GCS buckets, GCR registries, and GKE Kubernetes clusters we can gain access to. We'll use this information to configure the Stack Components in our minimal GCP stack: a GCS Artifact Store, a Kubernetes Orchestrator, and a GCP Container Registry.
```sh
zenml service-connector list-resources --resource-type gcs-bucket
```
​
Example Command Output
```text
The following 'gcs-bucket' resources can be accessed by service connectors configured in your workspace:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ CONNECTOR ID β”‚ CONNECTOR NAME β”‚ CONNECTOR TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠──────────────────────────────────────┼────────────────┼────────────────┼───────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────┨
┃ eeeabc13-9203-463b-aa52-216e629e903c β”‚ gcp-demo-multi β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp β”‚ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ gs://zenml-bucket-sl ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ gs://zenml-core.appspot.com ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ gs://zenml-core_cloudbuild ┃
┃ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ β”‚ gs://zenml-datasets ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
```
```sh
zenml service-connector list-resources --resource-type kubernetes-cluster
```
​
Example Command Output
```text
The following 'kubernetes-cluster' resources can be accessed by service connectors configured in your workspace:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ CONNECTOR ID β”‚ CONNECTOR NAME β”‚ CONNECTOR TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠──────────────────────────────────────┼────────────────┼────────────────┼───────────────────────┼────────────────────┨
┃ eeeabc13-9203-463b-aa52-216e629e903c β”‚ gcp-demo-multi β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp β”‚ πŸŒ€ kubernetes-cluster β”‚ zenml-test-cluster ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
```
```sh
zenml service-connector list-resources --resource-type docker-registry
```
​
Example Command Output
```text
The following 'docker-registry' resources can be accessed by service connectors configured in your workspace:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ CONNECTOR ID β”‚ CONNECTOR NAME β”‚ CONNECTOR TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠──────────────────────────────────────┼────────────────┼────────────────┼────────────────────┼───────────────────┨
┃ eeeabc13-9203-463b-aa52-216e629e903c β”‚ gcp-demo-multi β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp β”‚ 🐳 docker-registry β”‚ gcr.io/zenml-core ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
```
  1. 5.
    register and connect a GCS Artifact Store Stack Component to a GCS bucket:
    zenml artifact-store register gcs-zenml-bucket-sl --flavor gcp --path=gs://zenml-bucket-sl
Example Command Output
```text
Running with active workspace: 'default' (global)
Running with active stack: 'default' (global)
Successfully registered artifact_store `gcs-zenml-bucket-sl`.
```
```sh
zenml artifact-store connect gcs-zenml-bucket-sl --connector gcp-demo-multi
```
​
Example Command Output
```text
Running with active workspace: 'default' (global)
Running with active stack: 'default' (global)
Successfully connected artifact store `gcs-zenml-bucket-sl` to the following resources:
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ CONNECTOR ID β”‚ CONNECTOR NAME β”‚ CONNECTOR TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE TYPE β”‚ RESOURCE NAMES ┃
┠──────────────────────────────────────┼────────────────┼────────────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────┨
┃ eeeabc13-9203-463b-aa52-216e629e903c β”‚ gcp-demo-multi β”‚ πŸ”΅ gcp β”‚ πŸ“¦ gcs-bucket β”‚ gs://zenml-bucket-sl ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛
```
  1. 6.
    register and connect a Kubernetes Orchestrator Stack Component to a GKE cluster:
    zenml orchestrator register gke-zenml-test-cluster --flavor kubernetes --synchronous=true
    --kubernetes_namespace=zenml-workloads
Example Command Output
```text
Running with active workspace: 'default' (global)
Running with active stack: 'default' (global)
Successfully registered orchestrator `gke-zenml-test-cluster`.
```
```sh