Installation on M1 Macs

How to install ZenML on M1 Macs

This is an older version of the ZenML documentation. To read and view the latest version please visit this up-to-date URL.

In order to run ZenML on Macs with M1 chips, you need to install Python under Rosetta 2. This issue arises because some of ZenML's dependencies aren’t fully compatible with the ARM64 architecture. The following step-by-step instructions will show you how you can install Python and ZenML under Rosetta using the Homebrew (brew) package manager and pyenv Python version manager. The tutorial will assume that you are using the default ZSH terminal.

1. Installing Rosetta

Depending on your machine, you might already have Rosetta installed. If not, run the following command in your terminal to install it:

softwareupdate --install-rosetta

2. Running a Terminal under Rosetta

Next, you need a way to run your terminal under rosetta so you can install the other dependencies later. There are two ways how you can do this.

Option 1: Starting a Rosetta Terminal from Terminal

One option to start a Terminal under Rosetta is to execute the following command:

arch -x86_64 zsh -l

Option 2: Adding Rosetta Terminal to your Applications

Alternatively, you can add a Rosetta Terminal to your Applications folder by copying your existing Terminal application from Applications/Utilities/Terminal, renaming the copy, and setting the Open using Rosetta checkbox as shown below:

1. Go to Applications/Utilities

2. Find 'Terminal'

3. Copy 'Terminal'

4. Rename the copy to 'Rosetta Terminal'

5. Get Info on 'Rosetta Terminal'

6. Check the 'Open using Rosetta' Checkbox

Verifying whether you run under Rosetta

To check whether your terminal is running under Rosetta or not, use the arch command:


This should return i386 if you are running under Rosetta.

Using Rosetta Terminal in VSCode

If you are using VSCode, you can add a Rosetta terminal option by modifying your settings.json. To do so, press CMD + Shift + P, search for 'Preferences: Open User Settings (JSON)', then add an entry into terminal.integrated.profiles.osx as shown below.

"terminal.integrated.profiles.osx": {
    "rosetta": {
        "path": "arch",
        "args": ["-x86_64", "zsh", "-l"],
        "overrideName": true

Optionally, you can also set Rosetta ZSH as the default terminal by setting terminal.integrated.defaultProfile.osx accordingly:

"terminal.integrated.defaultProfile.osx": "rosetta",

3. Installing Homebrew under Rosetta

Next, we will install Homebrew under Rosetta and alias it to brew86.

To install Homebrew under Rosetta, use the following command:

arch -x86_64 /bin/bash -c "$(curl -fsSL"

Then, create the brew86 alias like so:

alias brew86="arch -x86_64 /usr/local/bin/brew"

4. Installing pyenv and pyenv-virtualenv under Rosetta

Installing Dependencies

To install pyenv, you first need to install its dependencies:

brew86 install openssl readline sqlite3 xz zlib tcl-tk

Installing pyenv

Then you can install pyenv under Rosetta via:

brew86 install pyenv

Installing pyenv-virtualenv

Similarly, you can install pyenv-virtualenv via:

brew86 install pyenv-virtualenv

Creating a pyenv86 Alias

Then we will again create an alias for running pyenv under Rosetta:

alias pyenv86="arch -x86_64 pyenv"

Setting Environment Variables

Lastly, run the following lines to set the environment variables required by pyenv and pyenv-virtualenv in your .zshrc:

echo 'export PYENV_ROOT="$HOME/.pyenv"' >> ~/.zshrc
echo 'command -v pyenv >/dev/null || export PATH="$PYENV_ROOT/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.zshrc
echo 'eval "$(pyenv init -)"' >> ~/.zshrc
echo 'eval "$(pyenv virtualenv-init -)"' >> ~/.zshrc

5. Installing Python under Rosetta with Pyenv

Now you're all set and can install the Python version of your choice via

pyenv86 install <PYTHON_VERSION>

E.g. to install the latest Python version that ZenML currently supports (3.9.14), run:

pyenv86 install 3.9.14

6. Installing ZenML in a Virtual Environment

Lastly, let's install ZenML in a new virtual environment.

Creating a Virtual Environment with pyenv-virtualenv

To create a new virtual environment called zenml based on Python 3.9.14, run:

pyenv virtualenv 3.9.14 zenml

Activating a Virtual Environment with pyenv-virtualenv

You can then activate the virtual environment using

pyenv activate zenml

Installing ZenML

Finally, you can install ZenML in the virtual environment with pip:

pip install zenml
# or `pip install zenml[server]` if you want the sever installed as well

And that's it, you have successfully installed ZenML in Python 3.9 under Rosetta.

Known Limitations

TensorFlow Integration

ZenML's TensorFlow integration is based on the tensorflow pip package, which doesn't support M1 Macs. Therefore, ZenML is currently not compatible with TensorFlow on M1 Macs.

As a result, zenml integration install tensorflow will install an incompatible package, which will cause all ZenML commands to fail with error 83476 illegal hardware instruction. If you encounter this error, uninstall TensorFlow again via zenml integration uninstall tensorflow.

There already exist an M1-Mac-compatible TensorFlow package tensorflow-macos and a package for Mac-GPU-accelerated training of TensorFlow models tensorflow-metal, but they are not yet integrated with ZenML. We are actively working on supporting these packages and hope to remove this limitation soon.

Other Tools

Many other tools and packages commonly used by data scientists and ML engineers do not yet fully support the M1 Mac architecture either. See, e.g., this list of limitations.


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