Writing your first training pipeline

In ZenML, a pipeline refers to a sequence of steps which represent independent entities that gets a certain set of inputs and creates the corresponding outputs as artifacts. These output artifacts can potentially be fed into other steps as inputs, and that’s how the order of execution is decided.

Each artifact that is produced along the way is stored in an artifact store and the corresponding execution is tracked by a metadata store associated with the pipeline. These artifacts can be fetched directly or via helper methods. For instance in a training pipeline,view_statistics() and view_schema() can be used as helper methods to easily view the artifacts from interim steps in a pipeline.

Finally, ZenML already natively separates configuration from code in its design. That means that every step in a pipeline has its parameters tracked and stored in the declarative config file in the selected pipelines directory. Therefore, pulling a pipeline and running it in another environment not only ensures that the code will be the same, but also the configuration.


All of the ideas above are brought together to construct the foundation of the BasePipeline in ZenML. As the name suggests, it is utilized as a base class to create, execute and track pipeline runs which represent a higher-order abstraction for standard ML tasks.

As of 0.3.6, for end-to-end ML workflows, we are using the TrainingPipeline which is a specialized version of the BasePipeline with a fixed set of configurable steps. The mechanism to create a completely customized pipeline with a user-defined set of configurable steps will be published in more detail soon in this space. The details of this are currently being worked out and will be made available in future releases.


The TrainingPipeline is a specialized pipeline built on top of the BasePipeline and it is used to run a training experiment and deploy the resulting model. It covers a fixed set of steps representing the processes, which can be found in most of the machine learning workflows:

  • Split: responsible for splitting your dataset into smaller datasets such as train, eval, etc.

  • Sequence (Optional): responsible for extracting sequences from time-series data

  • Transform: responsible for the preprocessing of your data

  • Train: responsible for the model creation and training process

  • Evaluate: responsible for the evaluation of your results

  • Deploy: responsible for the model deployment

Implementation-wise, it covers the required methods to add the aforementioned steps to the pipeline. Additionally, it also features a set of helper functions, which makes it easier to interact with the output artifacts once the execution of the instance is completed. For instance, after the pipeline is executed, you can use view_statistics to take a deeper look into the statistics of your dataset/splits or you can use download_model to retrieve the trained model to a specified location.

The following is an overview of the complete implementation. You can find the full code right here.

class TrainingPipeline(BasePipeline):
# Step functions
def add_split(self, split_step: BaseSplit):
def add_sequencer(self, sequencer_step: BaseSequencerStep):
def add_preprocesser(self, preprocessor_step: BasePreprocesserStep):
def add_trainer(self, trainer_step: BaseTrainerStep):
def add_evaluator(self, evaluator_step: BaseEvaluatorStep):
def add_deployment(self, deployment_step: BaseDeployerStep):
# Helper functions
def view_statistics(self, magic: bool = False, port: int = 0):
def view_schema(self):
def evaluate(self, magic: bool = False, port: int = 0):
def download_model(self, out_path: Text = None, overwrite: bool = False):
def view_anomalies(self, split_name='eval'):

Building and executing your pipeline

The code snippet below shows how quickly you can wrap up a TrainingPipeline and get it up and running. All you have to do is:

  1. Create an instance of a TrainingPipeline

  2. Add a datasource to your instance

  3. Add the desired steps along with their configuration

  4. Simply run it

Most importantly, even when executing a simple example such as this, you maintain all the advantages that ZenML brings to the table such as reproducibility, scalability, and collaboration to their full extent.

from zenml.pipelines import TrainingPipeline
training_pipeline = TrainingPipeline(name='MyFirstPipeline')

A ZenML pipeline in the current version is a higher-level abstraction of an opinionated TFX pipeline. ZenML steps are in turn higher-level abstractions of TFX components. Our goal is to make it easier for the users of ZenML to define and run TFX pipelines. Moreover, ZenML treats pipelines as first-class citizens. We will elaborate more on the difference in this space, but for now, if you are coming from writing your own TFX pipelines, our quickstart example illustrates the difference well.

What's next?

  • If you would like to learn more about how to interact with pipelines in a ZenML repository, you can go here.

  • If you want to learn more about how to create the aforementioned datasource and steps, you can follow up on the documentation right here.